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Newest CSmith Features
Newest AdLab/AdLabPlus Features

Even though CSmith V. 1.0 was a full-featured Smith chart program. There was some work done to make it even better. In spite of this the current version of CSmith is still compatible with earlier versions.

Changes from version 1.0 to 1.1 :
• Some people asked if it is possible to include the circles which connect the different impedances at each element. This was not so easy because CSmith includes also the parasitic elements, i.e. the circles don´t lie on the admittance or impedances Smith chart circles. CSmith also has elements like transistors or S-parameter blocks in which it makes no sense to connect the element impedances by a circle. In spite of these difficulties this feature is now implemented!
• Because CSmith has elements like transistors or S-parameter blocks in which it makes no sense to connect the element impedances by a circle you can suppress the connecting lines for these elements..
• For loading circuit files not only a file browser is implemented but also a recursive file searcher.
• The number of turn ratio was named ü in the 1st version which is common in Germany. Now is has the letter v=n1/n2.
• Very few hints, items, etc. were still in German for Version 1.0. Now I think everything is in English. The only exeption - due to compatibility - is the INI file.
• It works also for version 1.04 but it was not documented: You can specify a circuit file on the command line which will be loaded after startup. Also in the Explorer you can drag a circuit file by mouse over the CSmith program.

Changes from version 1.1 to 1.15 :
• Saving circuits works good, but in version 1.1 there was an error in saving circuits with transformers. This bug is fixed.
• For matching networks with quarter wave length line stub lines there is no chage in the impedance. This creates an error message in version 1.10. Error checking is now improved.
• CSMITH.EXE is renamed to CSERPAR.EXE to give a better integration to ELEKTA and AdLab.
• In the 1st tab page you can load the intermediate impedances from the Smith chart. Now this is possible also for the generator. Astonishingly this makes the working much easier if you use a complex impedance as the generator impedance.

Changes from version 1.15 to 1.21 (April 2000) :
• The Smith chart can be copied to clipboard or can be saved as BMP file. These functions are available via standard menu and context pop-up menu.
• Now you can place a text below the Smith chart for instance for documentation.
• In the previous versions the labels at the Smith chart have a wrong sign.
• If no printer is installed the former version crashes. This bug is removed.
• The bubble help for the element input field was not always up-to-date. Now it is.
• Now you can mark a point in the Smith chart via mouse click and context pop-up menu.

Changes from version 1.21 to 2.0 :
• Last time I had to design a large matching network. So I increased the number of possible elements to 12. This also results in a larger program window.
• The sweep steps for the generator reflection coefficient are optimized to speed up operation.
• Now there is also a graphical output for the MAG vs frequency. This is helpful for amplifiers, but also for matching networks, to see what is really achievable.
• One the 1st page I added a graphical output for the voltage across a transmission line which shows the reflexion.
• Correction of some minor errors. For instance the length tolerence in the Options dialog was not update correctly in earlier versions.

Changes from version 2.0 to 2.1 (December 2000) :
• Drag & Drop together with the MS Explorer is now implemented. Simply open the Explorer (or Filemenager) and drag a CSP file to the CSmith window.
• You can set the graphic output window to „always stay in front“. These is very useful if you want to trimm the circuit elements.
• Now you can export the automatically created matching circuit from the 1st page to a circuit file.
• A minor bug is removed: The spin buttons to tune the series resistance of a transformer are now enabled.
• The tabular out is now more flexible, e.g. you may display either |r|, VSWR or return loss.
• The autoscale function in the graphical output is now enhanced. Formerly it works only for the transducer gain and rounding was not always correct.
• Now CSERPAR will automatically a link to all CSP files. So if you double click a CSERPAR circuit file the program will be started immediately.
• If you work with a circuit file (e.g. you load or save such a file) the filename will be put to the Windows Start button. If you click to Start - Documents you will see the recent files and you can start CSERPAR very comfortable.
• In version 2.0 an error occurs if you insert a transistor although appending works correctly. This error was due to initialization of some transistor parameters and is now fixed.
• Calculation of the maximum theoretical bandwidth due to Fano on the 1st page.
• Now you can jump to the AdLab homepage or write an email to the author within the program (look at the Help menu).

Changes from version 2.1 to 2.25 (April 2001) :
• Much more information is included in the help file on matching and Smith diagram usage.
• In the older versions by default no elements will be optimized (in Aplac). Now the default is set to Optimization=True for capacitors and inductors. This is more realistic and helps to reduce user entries.
• Now there are three kinds of optimizations available : The usual pass-band optimization and an optimization based on a tolerance scheme for for pass and stop band. This is very useful for filters, e.g. you can design the pass-band in CSERPAR and then optimize also the stop-band in Aplac. The 3rd optimization type is transistor model optimization on S-parameters loaded from a file. This is for instance useful if you have S-parameters in a small frequency range. Then the optimized model will give a good extrapolation.
• Saving of S-parameter data is improved, now you can specify the frequency range and the stepsize.
• In 2.1 the Fano calculation leads to an error if the phase is zero. This bug has been removed.*
• When you delete the last element (load) in version 2.1 this leads to an error. This bug is removed.*
• Now it´s possible to abort the frequency sweep in the Smith chart.*
• The export of automatic L-match wasn´t correct for Rs>Zo (elements interchanged). This has been corrected.*
* by suggestion of Mr. Eric van Slee

Changes from version 2.25 to 2.29 (Juli 2001) :
• Sometimes the connection of the different impedances work not 100% correct. So I add a checkbox in the Options window to enable straight line interconnection as in version 1.0.
• When writing S-parameter, Aplac or circuit files backup files will be created if needed.
• The table now also shows the phase of the reflexion coefficient.
The columm which corresponds to the selected element is now marked and the impedance in the Smith chart also.
• The graphical VSWR output on the 1st page is now correct. In the previous version it was a sine wave shape, but this is only an approximation.
• Switching between the tabs and to „Z(Generator) from 1st page“ was enhanced.*
• The output for optimum load and generator impedance in the More window was wrong. It was correct in the Two-Port program VIERPOL.*
• To have access to ALL AdLab tools I added ANPASS and ANTENNE to the Tool item of the CSmith menu.
* by suggestion of Mr. Eric van Slee

Changes from version 2.29 to 2.3 (October 2001) :
• I increase the window size to increase the maximum number of elements to 14. That´s good for multi-stage transistor amplifiers or large filters.
• Often an element such as an non-ideal bias-T is needed. Such element is now available in the Smith chart (with Series L and R and blocking capacitance to ground with parallel R).
• Menu item in the File menu to create an icon on the desktop for CSmith/SERPAR.
• The frequency sweep in the Smith chart is much improved. Now it has more points, you can select a linear or logarithmic sweep and the point density and labels for the frequency can be placed automatically.
• In the graphical output now the output impedance is available. This was previously possible only when using CSERPAR and SPARAM together.
• In the previous versions you can copy, paste & insert the circuit elements. Now a move (left & right) function is available. That´s nice for potentially unstable amplifiers to insert damping resistors.
• The output of MAG is enhanced, if k<1 MSG is shown.
• Now you can supress the output for the -1dB and -3dB level line in the graphic menu.
• Sometimes a large circle was drawn in the Smith chart if two impedances are too close together. This bug is now eliminated.
• I increased the text entry field below the Smith chart and colored it a bit darker than the background. I also moved the „More Information“-button to get additional space for the output of the GGenerator value.

Changes from version 2.3 to 2.31 (January 2002) :
• The Smith chart size is increased by more than 20% to get a better overview for matching network design. I also added some labels to the chart.
• On the 2nd page left to the table I added a button to switch between polar and Cartesian format.
• To find the current element faster in the Smith chart, the arc of the current element is now made thicker.
• Now you can also insert gain blocks defined by input and output resistance and power gain. This is useful for amplifier design if no transistor data or S-parameters are available.
• The window for the table on VWSR, return loss, etc. was still in German. I translated it now. I also add two buttons, one for email and one for webpage access.

Changes from version 2.31 to 2.4 (April 2002) :
• Integration to AdLabPlus.
• E-Mail connection in registration dialog.
• Output for damping of a transmission line corrected and added output for mechanical length in status bar.
• I changed the Smith chart background color from silver to white. This more useful if you want to copy the chart to your own documents (Word files etc.) or if you want to make photo copies from a printout.
• For the graphical Monte-Carlo output I marked the normal curve (nominal design) with a wider pen and a darker color. I also increased the number of runs to 10 because todays pcs are much more powerful.
• More information, like VSWR and return loss at the input port, will be shown on the `More´-window for the Smith chart. I also rearranged the output to give the user a better overview.
• The function „Always stay in front“ is very useful for the graphic window, e.g. if you trim matching elements. In the past this function was coupled with the autoscale function. Now the coupling is removed, which is an advantage if you have modified the axis scales, etc.
• Export of the Smith chart to JPEG file. It´s typically much smaller than a BMP file with slightly lower quality.

Changes from version 2.4 to 2.41 (July 2002) :
• The table output für VSWR was not always updated correctly after activating the graphic window. This small bug has been fixed.

To Version 2.42 (October 2002) :
• I put a nice Smith chart with some explanations to the help window.
• I changed some colors in the Smith chart to improve contrasts.

Version 2.5 was created using Delphi 7 instead of Delphi 3. I also find some inconsistencies in the background colors of some windows, which become aware when I changed the default button color. To improve user interface I also put some nice icons to important menu items. To decrease memory occupation I used more dynamic child windows instead of static ones. In 2.5 you can also export graphics in JPEG and GIF format.

To Version 2.5 (January 2003) :
• Many new menu items have been added to improve Smith chart usage.
• In the Smith chart page now you can display nearly all the circuit element values in the schematic view. There is a button to toggle between the output table view and the circuit elements. I also changed the background color to white get make it nicer for printing and exporting.
• The bubble helps might bother the experienced user, so you can disable them now in the Options menu.
• For the Smith chart I added a button to append an element from buffer.
• Many improvements have been made within the Monte-Carlo window (e.g. printing is now available, axis scaling is enhanced, the output has now the more common line diagram and the number of runs has been increased to 1000).Now you can also enter limits for transducer gain to obtain yield information and Cpk values.
• Flickering of the cursor cross in removed in all charts.
• The Search Circuit dialog features now a larger output window to display also very long pathes.

To Version 2.51 (April 2003) :
• Help for Smith chart has been improved.
• Ín capacitor or inductor elements you can now also define loss by parallel resistance. This allows e.g. modeling of magnetic loss in coils.
• An error when appending circuits corrected.

To Version 2.6 (October 2003) :
• The tolerance band optimization has been improved. It is now for both highpass and lowpass characteristics.
• The circuit search dialog has been improved: During search the cursor is now an hourglass. Also some German bubble helps have been translated.
• The connection lines are sometimes wrong if an S-parameter block or transistor has been inserted. This has been corrected.

To Version 2.61 (January 2004) :
• Now the bubble help for the Append button is more informative. Also the Interchange button in the graphical output displays the current status in ist bubble help.

To Version 2.62 (April 2004) :
• Only few internal things. Foccus was more on other tools.

To Version 2.7 (October 2004) :
• Now the user can place a marker cross in the large Smith chart. To do this mouse the mouse to the desired point (check impedance by looking at the status bar) and press the right mouse button to get the pop-up menu.
• I introduced some more short cuts and pop-up menu items, e.g. for searching circuits, options window, to toggle circuit view, Smith chart information window, etc.
• I guess it’s a nice feature to play with: At the 1st page you can set the cursor in the small Smith chart to define the reflection coefficient via mouse. Move the mouse pointer to the desired place and press the left mouse button. It’s interesting to look at the standing wave picture at the lower right position.
• In the graphic window a legend with some circuit information, date, number of MC runs, etc. can be placed (use short-cut Ctrl-L).
• As part of the legend, the 3dB-bandwidth of the gain will be calculated.
• Some more hints in help file.
• After setting the Q or VSWR circles the Smith chart will be automatically redrawn.

To Version 2.71 (February 2005) :
• Some more internal improvements, e.g. there was an initilization error which causes problem in the graphical output during calculation of bandwidth. I also increased the window size a bit.
• I added a button to show or hide the legend, that is easier to use than via the menu.

To Version 2.72 (May 2005) :
• The coupling factor has been truncated on saving, this could lead to k=0. This bug has been fixed. It is quite seldom that so small values will be used, but indeed for RFID applications k is typically very small.
• The phase in the Smith chart was at 270°, wrapping at 360° or 180° is more meaningful*. Now 180° is the default and you can change it under menu item Options-Phase Wrap.
• The new version is now also optimized for large Windows fonts.
* by suggestion of Mr. Alan Shaw

To Version 2.8 (February 2006) :
• Only few minor changes.

AdLab/AdLabPlus Changes

To Version 1.15 :
The previous version based on 16-bit Windows, now all programs are 32 bit. There are also many other improvements, for instance :

• ANPASS More topologies, calculation of bandpass filters and class E amplifiers
• ANTENNE Calculation of mixer spurious, intermodulation products and phase noise requirements in TX systems
• DBRECHNE VSRR calculations
• LBELAG Export function and definition of lines by L´, C, etc.
• LTRANSF Output for equivalent circuits
• NOISE Noise circles and calculation of noise parameters
• SERPAR Filter denormalization
• TRAFO Symmetrical transformers
• VIERPOL Table output, area factor, feedback, Smith chart, transmission and ABCD parameters and much more!

To Version 1.21 :
• General: Better translation from German to English
• LBELAG Export function for SPICE and APLAC, Model includes series resistance

To Version 2.0 :
• SPARAM A complete new tool to visualize S-parameter data (Smith chart, Bode plot, k-factor and much more). After starting the program load a file with Touchstone or Supercompact format like BFR96.SPM from the file menu.
• CSERPAR Many things, see CSMITH.HLP
• Help Case study on a universal RF matching network
• General Minor corrections

To Version 2.1 :
• DBRECHNE Damping and voltage drop for PAE calculations now adjustable.
• NOISE Output for base current in transistor noise calculations.
• VIERPOL If you load a s-parameter file it will be also displayed in the Windows Start menu under Recent Documents.In the tabular output you now also get the optimum generator and load impedances.

To Version 2.25 :
• LBELAG & LTRANSF Direct coupling of the programs: If you design a TRL in LBELAG you can start LTRANSF and you automatically get the correct values for Zo, f, length, etc.
• LTRANSF Now you can also export a lumped model to CSERPAR. This has advantages when you want to insert a stub e.g. with an end capacitance or inductance.
• ANTENNE The old table entry for the “Intermodulation Calculation“ has an error, it wasn´t possible to enter new frequencies. This is corrected and also the autoscaling has been much improved.*
• SPARAM Some bugs has been removed and now the program can handle larger SPM files.*
• DBRECHNE New page for dB calculation on digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters including SINAD, THD, etc.
• Help Case study on match for RF power amplifiers
* special thanks to Mr. Eric van Slee for his hints

To Version 2.29 :
• LBELAG, LTRANSF, etc. When writing S-parameter, Aplac or circuit files backup files will be created if needed.
• ANPASS Export to CSERPAR is now with optionally with E-series values for all circuit elements.
• NOISE Calculation of oscillator jitter (and its SNR influence) and output für the power of the minimum detectable signal.
• DBRECHNE Calculation of VSWR uncertainties for power measurements

To Version 2.30 :
• ANTENNE Now you can enter the antenna temperature*. This is useful for non-terrestrial links.
• DBRECHNE Output field for peak-to-peak voltage at the 1st page and for power gain at the 2nd one.
• SERPAR Now correct US-style resistor symbols in all pages. Window size has been increased.
• Help Presentation of the key factors in RF power amplifier design, showing also the usage of some AdLab tools.
* special thanks to Mr. Luitjens Popken for his hints

To Version 2.31 :
• LBELAG Some value are not stored correctly in the INI file. I corrected this and rearranged the output fields to get a better overview.
• ANPASS Now designing a double-L type section is implemented. This type of matching network is quite common for RF power amplifiers. A bug is removed in the series LC tank matching configuration.For the circuit export to CSERPAR a comment is included.
• ANTENNE Extra output field for the output intercept point OIP3.
• DBRECHNE More output fields for the VSWR calculations (e.g. short-circuit VSWR and ratio of forward and reserve traveling power)

To Version 2.40 :
The previous version based on some older ELEKTA tools. For AdLabPlus many extensions have been made, for instance :

• AFILTER Some small bugs have been removed and the design of an LC-bandpass diplexer is included. Also now it is possible to design 2nd order highpass / lowpass diplexer.
• COILS Includes all transformer calculations of TRAFO from AdLab, but also all coil calculations of ELEKTA. I also added the inductance calculation of an wire over a ground plane.
• LEITER Includes now also the calculation of matching behavior of resistors and transistors.
• ESTATIK Features now the calculation on triplate and microstrip transmission lines and also the design of a sample & hold circuit (Drop-rate, hold-step, etc.).
• MODEL This is totally new and combines modeling on diodes, different transistor types and op amps. Very powerful are the tuning modes for many parameters and the graphical outputs.
• OHM Combines two smaller programs for Ohm´s Law and source equivalent circuits.
• RLCFILT Combines the two programs for RC and LC filters and has also some extensions.
• TRANSISTOR This is a very powerful program for the design of transistor bias circuits, current mirrors, bandgap circuits and linear amplifiers including a graphical output for MAG and stability factor.

To Version 2.41 :
• SPARAM Graphical output also characteristic impedance vs frequency.
• LEITER Output also for conductivity s=1/r.
• TRANSISTOR For current mirrors the area ratio should be much smaller then the DC beta of the transistors, so some checks are needed. These are now improved to get less confusing warnings.
• AFILTER The output for bandstop gain was wrong (especially above the resonance frequency). This has been corrected.
• OHM The help was extended and for the time domain calculations I added a graph to give a better understanding.
• COILS Now you can calculate the mutual inductance between straight wires and a rectangular loop.
• ESTATIK Output for area of an integrated capacitor also in mm².

To Version 2.42 :
• TRANSISTOR More design hints on each circuit.
• COILS Calculation of square-shaped spiral inductors using Wheeler´s formula.
• ESTATIC The supply current of switching logic gates will be estimated on a new tabpage.
• AFILTER Startup speed and autoscaling in graphical output is improved. Also now you also have a complete output for group delay in LC ladder filters.
• Some In some tools the color sceme was not consistent in all Windows environments.

To Version 2.5 :
• I added some menu items for features already available from buttons to improve user interface.
• AFILTER Improved menu for calculation of filter order, it´s now both for high- and low-pass filters and also for cascaded passive PC filters. Also a small bug in LC filter calculation has been removed (calculation was wrong for N=2 if you previously design a higher order filter) and the user interface is improved (better recalculation).From the LC-Filter page you can now also create 2nd order subfilters. So the LC-Filter page will also work as a starting point for an active filter design.
• LEITER The graphical output for cylindric conductors was not always correct. This has been correct and all current densities are now normalized to the maximum.
• OHM By accident a lot of the spin buttons don´t work, I correct this.
• RLCFILTER By accident no startup link was implemented for RLCFILT in the old help help. Now there is! I also added a completely new page for Twin-T, Wien bridge and RC bandpass filters.
• ESTATIC The S&H tool will now also calculate the frequency drift which is related to drop rate when a VCO or FM demodulator is involved. For the calculation of microstrip or strip lines there is now a button for more detailed calculations with transmission line tool.
• SYS In 2.42 this program was included accidently. 3 of the tab pages work already fine, but the multistage PA designer was not fully implemented.

To Version 2.51 :
• ESTATIC I correct the formulas in the CMOS page and add an output field for the effective resistance and extend the help text.
• RLCFILTER Additional Q calculation for LC tank circuits.
• Help Some extensions in help file, update of many pictures.

To Version 2.6 :
• All: Now you can send an e-mail directly from each program to the author.
• SYS The text table output now also reflects the number of system blocks.
• ANPASS Anpass can save circuits for CSmith, but some topologies are not supported. The check is now performed before entering the file name to avoid unnecessary work.
• AFILTER, ANPASS, NOISE & RLCFILTER These programs feature now graphic export as GIF file (not only BMP and JPEG). This format gives the best compromize between quality and file size and it compatible to HTML internet applications.
• ESTASTIK There is now an additional page for plate capacitors with rectangular, circular and octangular capacitors which includes edge capacitance calculation.

To Version 2.61 :
• Help: Some extensions
• OP Completely new tool for the calculation of op-amp circuits, e.g. different amplifiers and oscillators and phase margin calculations.
• LBELAG Some general improvements and better calculations. In the old version the phase was not always consistant.
• VIERPOL Some remaining German phrases have been translated to English.
• SPARAM Features now also graphic export as GIF file (not only BMP and JPEG).
• AFILTER Removement of an initialization error during start-up if high-pass/low-pass diplexer is selected.
• OHM Now there is a completely new tab page for the calculation of resistive dividers.
• TRANSISTOR More detailed hints for the different circuits and GIF output in the graphik window.
• ESTATIC Improvements in the calculations of edge capacitances in all related tab pages.

To Version 2.62 :
• VIERPOL Now the whole window size has been increase, mainly to get a larger Smith chart, which should be now better usuable.
• ESTATIC Now the output for the field calculation is much nicer. The lightness represents the field strenght. Also some example field configurations have been added.

To Version 2.7 :
• COILS Some hints on coils (Wheelers formula and on quality factor).
• ESTATIC In the old version one spin-button doesn’t work correct for triplate capacitors. For microstrip lines now also a shielding can be included to the calculation.
• ANPASS Some hints on Q factor in help page.
• Help: Some more hints on usage.
• VIERPOL Now the whole window size has been increase, mainly to get a larger Smith chart, which should be now better usuable.
• ANPASS Some hints on Q factor in help page.
• LBELAG There was an error in the initialization part of the inductance calculation for two parallel wires. This leads to wrong results for L, Z0, etc.
• DBRECHNE Calculation of required effective Early voltage of the current stage of a DAC to get low integral nonlinearity (INL>½VLSB).
• Several: I improved the labeling in some of the programs (mainly OHM, LTRANSF, NOISE and TRANSISTOR). This makes the texts easier to read.
• Several: In several tools the Tool menu has been improved. In older versions some menu items do not work.

To Version 2.71 :
• MODEL I increased the window size to get larger graphic display for the model characteristics. Also you can edit the model parameters for bipolar transistors in an own window. This makes modifying of the parameters easier, because all parameters are named.
• DBRECHNE New page for the calculation of general resistor ladder networks. R-2R ladders are very popular for DAC’s & attenuators, but the new dBCalc can also calculate R-3R or R-R ladders, etc. You also get the required DAC current source matching (sigma value) for an integral nonlinearity less than 0.5 LSB and parametric yield of 90%.The ADC/DAC page features now also a graphical ouput (only in full version).
• SERPAR The tool has now a page for the calculation of Miller and Bootstrap effect in amplifiers. It calculates things like effective input capacitance or input resistance.
• VIERPOL The program now also converts S-parameter files to S-parameter files with different characteristic impedance.

To Version 2.72 :
• LBELAG In the old version the bond wire inductance was not always correctly calculated. I correct this and also make the geometry entry much more flexible.
• LEITER I have added a small table in the help for typical matching constants in different MOS technologies.
• RLCFILT There were some errors in the Q calculation of the LC tank circuits. I have corrected this.

To Version 2.8 :
• NOISE Some label corrections and calculation of effective number of bits accordings to SNR. Now you can also calculate back the voltage and current noise from total noise at two different generator resistances.
• LEITER An additional hints has been added to help page. Also some hints were still in German, which have been correctd.
• SPEKTRUM Completely new tool for calculating signal spectra, e.g. of square waves, triangular waves, modulated signals, etc. Have much fun!
• PLL Completely new tool for PLL calculations on loop filters.

To Version 2.81 :
• SYS Some label and hint corrections. Improved IIP3 calculation and better help text. Additional noise calculation in "BW<->tr" dialog.

Copyright © 2002 Stephan Weber. All rights reserved.
Version: February 19, 2006.